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Director / Editor: Victor Teboul, Ph.D.
Looking inside ourselves and out at the world
Independent and neutral with regard to all political and religious orientations, Tolerance.ca® aims to promote awareness of the major democratic principles on which tolerance is based.
Yannick B. Vallee
By Yannick B. Vallee
B.A. Political Science
Yannick B. Vallee is a political scientist who recently graduated from Bishop’s University (Quebec, Canada) in the BA program of political science. He also has a college degree of Business Administration with a specialization in marketing. Nowadays,  he specializes in American, Canadian, and Japanese Politics. He also studies Asian foreign policy with special interest on Japan and its influence in Asia. He has a keen interest in American and Canadian history.
Articles in this column
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
The United Kingdom has one of the oldest continuous democratic systems in the World. The nation enjoys an unwritten constitution which defines rights, freedoms, duties, and rules about how their national institutions work. The British constitution consists of principles developed over hundreds of years from legislations, precedents, conventions, and customs. These legal principles and statutes found in the unwritten constitution date back to the 1215 Magna Carta which establishes the principle that everyone is subject to the rule of law. Nowadays, the nation is going through an unprecedented constitutional crisis due to the process of Brexit. The Johnson government shut down Parliament to avoid parliamentary scrutiny on Brexit. Besides, a Scottish court claims that Prime Minister Johnson misled the Queen when he advised her to prorogue Parliament. Besides, Brexit shows a struggle between parliamentary sovereignty and people`s sovereignty. Then, the new prime minister keeps social divisions made by the Brexit referendum. Also, the prime minister cannot get the support of the Commons and he cannot trigger elections because he ignores the will of Parliament. In addition, the Johnson government now leads the nation to new constitutional limits. (Full Story)
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
For centuries, the supreme legal authority in the United Kingdom is Parliament. As a result, Parliament can make new legislations and end laws. Legislative supremacy is essential in a liberal democracy because only people`s representatives legitimize the government in power through the confidence of the House. Nowadays, the prime minister does not take into account the fact that MPs do not want a No Deal Brexit at all. As well, there are some rumours the prime minister could ignore a vote of no confidence to make sure Brexit happens. Besides, Theresa May did not implement indicative votes coming from Parliament while in power. Still, there is no common ground among MPs on Brexit except the fact that they do not want a No Deal Brexit. Nowadays, Boris Johnson simply ignores Parliament by leading the U.K. to a No Deal Brexit. Consequently, members of Parliament are trying get united in order to stop a No Deal Brexit on October 31st. There will be several parliamentary tactics to stop a No Deal Brexit. (Full Story)
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
The British Prime Minister is one of the most influential political leaders in the World. Even though, the prime minister is said to be ¨first among equals¨ in the cabinet, he has several powers such as deciding most of the government policies. As head of government, he defends British values and promotes social and economic development. Moreover, the prime minister represents the nation at home and abroad. These prime minister`s responsibilities and duties of the utmost importance for Britain are meant to protect the British way of life and wellbeing. In July 2019, the British Conservatives, the current ruling party, chose Boris Johnson as head of government who has one of the greatest challenges in modern British history which is to settle Brexit and united the nation again. The new prime minister is committed that the U.K. leaves the E.U. with or without any deal. Besides, Boris Johnson says he will energise the nation by investing in health, public safety, transportation, and in making Brexit happen. (Full Story)
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
Brexit will not only have social and economic consequences on the United Kingdom, but this will also be felt throughout the British territories. The British Crown once ruled over a quarter of the Earth; nowadays, Her British Majesty, Queen Elizabeth 2, is sovereign over the United Kingdom, Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey, Isle of Man, and 14 British Overseas Territories. In the event that Brexit becomes reality, these Crown territories will have to get used to new rules made by the British withdrawal from the European Union. British territories could get separate deals with the European Union in order to safeguard their economic prosperity and keep their special relationship with neighbouring E.U. members. Some British Overseas Territories and Dependencies are unclear about their social and economic future if Brexit ever happens. (Full Story)
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
In 2016, British people voted at nearly 52% to leave the European Union and Prime Minister Theresa May is committed to deliver Brexit. Therefore, Britain is expected to leave the Union in 2019. The end of European Union law in the United Kingdom might be the biggest constitutional moment since the English Civil War and the English Reformation according to British historian Kate Williams. In view of the 2016 referendum result, Prime Minister Theresa May triggered Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty to start the withdrawal process with Brussels. This implies that negotiations between both parties could take up to two year to get a comprehensive withdrawal agreement. The outcome of these negotiations was the withdrawal agreement that allows the U.K. to give up its E.U. membership while maintaining some social and economic connections with the E.U. Thus, the withdrawal agreement is a well-balanced deal that takes into accounts several elements of the Conservative government`s demands. Nevertheless, there is no parliamentary common support for this withdrawal agreement. (Full Story)
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
Leaving the European Union might almost be impossible for Britain without facing great social and economic challenges. For instance, European law is currently enshrined in British law. As a result, British people greatly enjoy progressive legislations enacted by the E.U. Besides, the British economy is based on E.U. trade which accounts for about 50% of national trade. British universities will lose funding from the European Union. Britons will lose the freedom of movement across the continent enjoyed by E.U. members. European members can travel and work anywhere in Europe without any restriction. For that reason, British now suffer from the buyer`s remorse in this post Brexit referendum era. People worry about food shortages, economic crises, and the loss of several European advantages. Additionally, several Brexit supporters now regret voting for the British withdrawal from the Union. (Full Story)
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
The United Kingdom is an island nation which greatly relies on the flow of goods in and out of the country. A need for greater self-determination was the main purpose why British people voted in favour of leaving the E.U.; however, there is currently a lot of uncertainty about Brexit because London might not get any trade deal with the European Union. London and Brussels are currently negotiating the British exit from the E.U.; nevertheless, there has not been any clear outcome coming out of Brexit negotiations. Besides, there is a chance that no transition deal be signed between Britain and the E.U. We could expect unstable markets and a scarcity in goods in the event that no trade and customs deal be signed. For that reason, British people have just started to understand the scope of challenges they have to face in order to leave the European Union. As well, there might not be any deal signed between Brussels and London. (Full Story)
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
The Democratic People`s Republic of Korea (DPRK) is the most isolated nation on earth. North Korea has only formal diplomatic ties with 24 countries in the World. Therefore, there are a very small number of nations which carries on formal foreign relations with Kim`s regime. Hence, North Korea is a hermit kingdom among the concert of nations. This country has a very poor human rights record and sometimes threatens Western nations on various issues. For that reason, the DPRK is seen by several countries as an unfriendly nation. North Korea is not positively perceived on the World stage and the DPRK does very little to improve its international image. Besides, this nation is accused by some observers of using its embassies to conduct illegal activities. Therefore, the country does not try to show a positive image worldwide through its diplomatic channels. Nevertheless, this has changed a little since the DPRK re-opened diplomatic channels with South Korea and the United States in 2018. (Full Story)
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) is the most isolated nation on earth. This country is commonly known as North Korea and it claims to be sovereign over the entire Korean Peninsula. North Korea was created at the end of the Korean War between 1950 and 1953. At the end of the war, the Kim Il Sung`s socialist government remained in the north and a capitalist government took control of the South. Kim IL Sung, as first North Korean Supreme Leader, led the first socialist government of the DPRK by implementing his self-reliance ideology which isolated North Korea from the rest of the World. The self-reliance ideology, known as Juche in North Korea, aims at protecting the socialist state from any outside influence.  (Full Story)
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
                Canadian Prime Minister Pierre E. Trudeau introduced in the early 1970s the concept that Canada must be a just and progressive society. Trudeau’s vision of Canada was a country of individual freedom and of social justice. Trudeau advocated that the nation turns into a fairer society. Thus, the prime minister thought that a fairer share of national wealth would give more freedom to everyone because Canadians could benefit from more opportunities if their basic needs were met. As a result, the Pierre E. Trudeau Government and the Edward Schreyer Manitoba Government jointly created an experimental program which provided guaranteed annual income to more than 2,000 families in Manitoba. The purpose of this project was to assess the social impacts of a guaranteed and unconditional annual income. Besides, social researchers wanted to know whether or not recipients would work less if they were given unconditional government cheques. Nowadays, the Ontario Government of Kathleen Wynne has started a similar social experiment in three different communities. As a result, the Province of Ontario has randomly selected 4,000 people to participate in the basic income plan. This type of social welfare system might revolutionize the way government delivers social programs in Canada. Some experts think that basic income programs might eliminate poverty and these initiatives might cost less than current social programs.  (Full Story)
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