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Yannick B. Vallee
By Yannick B. Vallee
B.A. Political Science
Yannick B. Vallee is a political scientist who recently graduated from Bishop’s University (Quebec, Canada) in the BA program of political science. He also has a college degree of Business Administration with a specialization in marketing. Nowadays,  he specializes in American, Canadian, and Japanese Politics. He also studies Asian foreign policy with special interest on Japan and its influence in Asia. He has a keen interest in American and Canadian history.
Articles in this column
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
Www.wikipedia.org
Political parties rule the nation by forming governments; these organizations have a great deal of power in the Westminster parliamentary system. Until 1832, governments used to be formed by coalitions and people rather than by political parties. However, the decline of the Crown influence gave more power to party leaders. British politics has started to favoured a two party system. The Labour Party and Conservatives were two main parties contesting elections. In addition, the Labour Party was founded in 1900 outside Parliament. Every British socialist leader joined the Labour Representation Committee, now known as the Labour Party. The Labour Party became a powerful political force in British politics that united the progressive supporters. The Labour Party was modernized by Tony Blair that rejected state owned industry and by reducing trade union influence in the 1990s and early 2000s. Nowadays, Labour Leader Jeremy Corbyn turned back the party to the left wing of political spectrum. Corbyn is a strong advocate for more government nationalization and for a trade union friendly government. Jeremy Corbyn wants more investments in social programs. He strongly believes in social democracy and in greater government interventions. Under Corbyn`s leadership, the Labour Party is a progressive party that considers a second referendum is needed to settle Brexit. However, this might be very hard for Corbyn to get a mandate to govern because he is not a centrist politician who could unite many moderate voters to support his reforms. Jeremy Corbyn is seen as a radical politician by many voters; thus, this might not be an easy task to get a Labour government elected with Corbyn`s socialist ideals. The Labour Party could have campaigned on a centrist political platform in order to have better chances to a form a government. The Conservatives want to get Brexit done regardless of national unity. If Brexit gets done, Scotland and Northern Ireland could leave the union. As a result, a Labour government is needed in order to protect national unity by settling the never ending Brexit saga through a people`s vote. Besides, national unity could easily be safeguarded by cancelling Brexit which is not a line with national unity because Northern Ireland and Scotland does not support Brexit of any kind. (Full Story)
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
The British nation has been dealing with the Brexit issue since 2016. British people are fed up of hearing the ¨Brexit¨ word on a daily basis. Brexit divides families and friends; everyone has an opinion on the issue. Besides, Brexit also has triggered a constitutional crisis and Brexit pushed the executive branch and the legislative branch to be on a different page. The new Prime Minister does not work with MPs to find common grounds on Brexit. The head of government does not want to respect the will of Parliament. For instance, Parliament enacted the Benn Act to compel the Prime Minister to ask Brussels for a Brexit delay. In sum, Boris Johnson fails to unite the nation with his Brexit deal. The U.K. is still deeply divided over the Brexit issue. Hard Brexiteers do not agree with soft Brexiteers who prefer that the country keeps some free trade and a border with limited restrictions with the European Union. Northern Ireland unionists want that their British region leaves the European Union with the rest of the United Kingdom while the European Union is concerned that Brexit does not respect the Good Friday Agreement. Boris Johnson introduced a withdrawal agreement to Parliament which gives a veto power to the Northern Ireland Assembly to protect the Good Friday Agreement, but the unionist Democratic Union Party is strongly against Johnson`s deal. Prime Minister Johnson strongly believes in Brexit and he thinks that the best way to get Brexit done is to have a general election in order to get more Conservative MPs elected to support his Brexit plan. Johnson wants to get his deal ratified by Parliament. In short, Johnson desperately needs to get a majority government to make his Brexit plan happen. (Full Story)
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
The history of Canada has always been inspired by great visionaries. Some of these Canadian visionaries were prime ministers of different political convictions. Each of these leaders promoted their ideals and visions of Canada. Justin Trudeau`s leadership has been inspired by his father`s premiership who defended rights and freedoms, multiculturalism, and who made some significant legal reforms. In the same way, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau vigorously defends liberal values in terms of individual rights, equality of opportunities, and the right for Canadians to live as they choose. Under Justin Trudeau`s leadership, Canada is the second country to legalize cannabis. Moreover, Justin Trudeau is in favour of immigration because he thinks that people from different cultures and backgrounds are assets for the Canadian nation. Prime Minister Trudeau defends Canada`s economic interests by investing in the economy and by protecting the North American free trade Area. Also, He made a revolution by decriminalizing and legalizing cannabis. (Full Story)
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
British monarchy dates back to the 800s. There have been 66 Kings and Queens of England and Britain since the year of 827. The powers and duties of British monarchy have evolved over hundreds of years. The Queen carries out some official, ceremonial, diplomatic, and representative responsibilities. She is not involved in politics and it is prime minister`s duty to carry out the burden of politics for her. Besides, The Queen`s executive powers are limited by the British constitution. Even though, she could rule the Kingdom if she wishes, she reigns, but she does not govern. As a well, she has a symbolic role in Britain and in other commonwealth realms like Canada and Australia. She has the power to appoint or dismiss the Prime Minister and any minister, she can summon, prorogue, and dissolve Parliament, she can make war and peace, she can regulate the civil service, and she is the commander in chief of the armed forces in the U.K. and in other commonwealth realms. However, she only uses her royal prerogatives on the advice of the Prime Minister. In sum, the Queen is politically neutral and she does not govern the nation. Nevertheless, the Queen could resolve the constitutional crisis by using her royal prerogatives if she wishes. The Queen could solve the Brexit crisis as Governor General John Kerr settled the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis. (Full Story)
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
The United Kingdom has one of the oldest continuous democratic systems in the World. The nation enjoys an unwritten constitution which defines rights, freedoms, duties, and rules about how their national institutions work. The British constitution consists of principles developed over hundreds of years from legislations, precedents, conventions, and customs. These legal principles and statutes found in the unwritten constitution date back to the 1215 Magna Carta which establishes the principle that everyone is subject to the rule of law. Nowadays, the nation is going through an unprecedented constitutional crisis due to the process of Brexit. The Johnson government shut down Parliament to avoid parliamentary scrutiny on Brexit. Besides, a Scottish court claims that Prime Minister Johnson misled the Queen when he advised her to prorogue Parliament. Besides, Brexit shows a struggle between parliamentary sovereignty and people`s sovereignty. Then, the new prime minister keeps social divisions made by the Brexit referendum. Also, the prime minister cannot get the support of the Commons and he cannot trigger elections because he ignores the will of Parliament. In addition, the Johnson government now leads the nation to new constitutional limits. (Full Story)
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
For centuries, the supreme legal authority in the United Kingdom is Parliament. As a result, Parliament can make new legislations and end laws. Legislative supremacy is essential in a liberal democracy because only people`s representatives legitimize the government in power through the confidence of the House. Nowadays, the prime minister does not take into account the fact that MPs do not want a No Deal Brexit at all. As well, there are some rumours the prime minister could ignore a vote of no confidence to make sure Brexit happens. Besides, Theresa May did not implement indicative votes coming from Parliament while in power. Still, there is no common ground among MPs on Brexit except the fact that they do not want a No Deal Brexit. Nowadays, Boris Johnson simply ignores Parliament by leading the U.K. to a No Deal Brexit. Consequently, members of Parliament are trying get united in order to stop a No Deal Brexit on October 31st. There will be several parliamentary tactics to stop a No Deal Brexit. (Full Story)
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
The British Prime Minister is one of the most influential political leaders in the World. Even though, the prime minister is said to be ¨first among equals¨ in the cabinet, he has several powers such as deciding most of the government policies. As head of government, he defends British values and promotes social and economic development. Moreover, the prime minister represents the nation at home and abroad. These prime minister`s responsibilities and duties of the utmost importance for Britain are meant to protect the British way of life and wellbeing. In July 2019, the British Conservatives, the current ruling party, chose Boris Johnson as head of government who has one of the greatest challenges in modern British history which is to settle Brexit and united the nation again. The new prime minister is committed that the U.K. leaves the E.U. with or without any deal. Besides, Boris Johnson says he will energise the nation by investing in health, public safety, transportation, and in making Brexit happen. (Full Story)
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
Brexit will not only have social and economic consequences on the United Kingdom, but this will also be felt throughout the British territories. The British Crown once ruled over a quarter of the Earth; nowadays, Her British Majesty, Queen Elizabeth 2, is sovereign over the United Kingdom, Bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey, Isle of Man, and 14 British Overseas Territories. In the event that Brexit becomes reality, these Crown territories will have to get used to new rules made by the British withdrawal from the European Union. British territories could get separate deals with the European Union in order to safeguard their economic prosperity and keep their special relationship with neighbouring E.U. members. Some British Overseas Territories and Dependencies are unclear about their social and economic future if Brexit ever happens. (Full Story)
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
In 2016, British people voted at nearly 52% to leave the European Union and Prime Minister Theresa May is committed to deliver Brexit. Therefore, Britain is expected to leave the Union in 2019. The end of European Union law in the United Kingdom might be the biggest constitutional moment since the English Civil War and the English Reformation according to British historian Kate Williams. In view of the 2016 referendum result, Prime Minister Theresa May triggered Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty to start the withdrawal process with Brussels. This implies that negotiations between both parties could take up to two year to get a comprehensive withdrawal agreement. The outcome of these negotiations was the withdrawal agreement that allows the U.K. to give up its E.U. membership while maintaining some social and economic connections with the E.U. Thus, the withdrawal agreement is a well-balanced deal that takes into accounts several elements of the Conservative government`s demands. Nevertheless, there is no parliamentary common support for this withdrawal agreement. (Full Story)
By Yannick B. Vallee, B.A. Political Science, Member of Tolerance.ca®
Leaving the European Union might almost be impossible for Britain without facing great social and economic challenges. For instance, European law is currently enshrined in British law. As a result, British people greatly enjoy progressive legislations enacted by the E.U. Besides, the British economy is based on E.U. trade which accounts for about 50% of national trade. British universities will lose funding from the European Union. Britons will lose the freedom of movement across the continent enjoyed by E.U. members. European members can travel and work anywhere in Europe without any restriction. For that reason, British now suffer from the buyer`s remorse in this post Brexit referendum era. People worry about food shortages, economic crises, and the loss of several European advantages. Additionally, several Brexit supporters now regret voting for the British withdrawal from the Union. (Full Story)
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