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Ukraine war: first grain ship leaves Odesa, but EU should have seen food and energy crises coming

By Anna-Sophie Maass, Lecturer in International Relations and Diplomacy, Lancaster University
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Vladimir Putin’s invasion of Ukraine has resulted in four interrelated security crises. The war in Ukraine is a tragedy for human security, but it affects geopolitical security as well as food and energy security.

These four crises have been compounded by the failure of coercive diplomacy. This is a form of diplomacy which uses either sticks or carrots to encourage “an adversary” – in this case Russia – to change its behaviour.

Since Russia’s annexation…The Conversation


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