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Bouteflika ruled for two decades: his legacy will haunt Algerians for many years to come

By Yahia H. Zoubir, Visiting fellow at the Brookings Doha Center and Senior Professor of International Studies and Director of Research in Geopolitics, Kedge Business School
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Abdelaziz Bouteflika ruled Algeria with an iron fist for 20 years – from 1999 to 2019.

He was a political figure, one of the initial architects of Algeria’s authoritarian political system in the decades after its independence from France in 1962.

His journey passed through different phases. During the first

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