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Ukraine war: Putin's bid to weaponise refugees is failing – here's what that means for Europe

By Michael Ben-Gad, Professor of Economics, City, University of London
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Since the Russian invasion in February, about 8 million Ukrainians have fled the country. After eight months of fighting – and with no end to the war in sight – the prospect that many refugees may never return will exacerbate an ongoing population decline in Ukraine. The mass exodus will make it harder for the country to remain a viable independent state with a functioning economy.

Ukraine’s total fertility rate at the time of its independence in 1991 was 1.8 births per woman – already below…The Conversation

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