Director / Editor: Victor Teboul, Ph.D.
Looking inside ourselves and out at the world
Independent and neutral with regard to all political and religious orientations,® aims to promote awareness of the major democratic principles on which tolerance is based.

Apartheid ‘town planning’ created Orlando 90 years ago. It became a hotbed of black resistance

By Noor Nieftagodien, Head of the History Workshop, University of the Witwatersrand
Share this article
Orlando East, a working class community on the periphery of Johannesburg in South Africa, has turned 90 years old. Orlando was one of the first municipal locations – called townships under apartheid – established in 1932 for Africans under the 1923 Native Urban Areas Act. It was renamed Orlando East when Orlando West was established in the 1940s.

Several new townships were created, especially in the 1950s,…The Conversation

Read complete article

© The Conversation -
Subscribe to

Follow us on ...
Facebook Twitter