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Hybrid immunity: a combination of vaccination and prior infection probably offers the best protection against COVID

By Grace C Roberts, Research Fellow in Virology, University of Leeds
Lena Glaser, PhD Candidate, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen's University Belfast
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When we’re exposed to a pathogen such as a virus, our immune system identifies it as a foreign invader and mounts an attack. This ultimately results in the formation of antibodies which can neutralise the invading pathogen next time we encounter it.

It’s a complex process. Our immune system forms B cells (that make antibodies) and specialist T cells (that either aid B cells or kill infected cells), as well as memory cells to prepare for any future attacks from the same pathogen.

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